# Beamer overlays beyond the \visible

I wrote earlier this year about using the beamer overlay concept with relative slide specifications to produce dynamic slide structures. Another question about overlays came up recently on TeX StackExhange, but this time wanting to do something a bit different.

The ‘standard’ beamer overlay system does the same as the \visible command: makes things appear and disappear, but always keeps space for them on the slide. However, beamer also provides \only, which completely omits items not visible on a slide. So the question was how to combine this idea with the general overlay concept.

It turns out that this is all quite straight-forward if you know what to look for. The standard beamer overlay syntax, for example

\item<+->


extends to include an action type to specify what the overlay should do. That is given as a keyword and an @ before the overlay number(s). So for example

\begin{itemize}
\item First item
\item<only@1> Second item
\item<only@2> Replacement second item
...


will show Second item on the first slide then replace it entirely with Replacement second item on the second slide. That approach can be combined with the idea of relative slide specs, as I talked about before, to give something like

\documentclass{beamer}
\begin{document}
\begin{frame}
\begin{itemize}[<+->]
\item item 1
\item item 2
\item<only@+-.(2)> item 3
\item item 4
\item item 5
\end{itemize}

\end{frame}
\end{document}


to have the ‘normal’ items appear one at a time but with item 3 only on slides 3 and 4.

This doesn’t just apply to only: other keywords that work here include visible and alert. The latter tends to be seen with another syntax element: | to separate out appearance from a second action. A classic example of that is

\documentclass{beamer}

\begin{document}
\begin{frame}
\begin{itemize}[<+->]
\item item 1
\item item 2
\item item 4
\item item 5
\end{itemize}

\end{frame}
\end{document}


where item 3 appears on the third slide and is highlighted on the fourth one. (Note that both + substitutions in this line use the same value for the pause counter, hence needing the (1) offset.) That’s useful even without the ‘one at a time’ effect, with for example

\documentclass{beamer}

\begin{document}
\begin{frame}
\begin{itemize}
\item item 1
\item item 2
\item item 4
\item item 5
\end{itemize}

\end{frame}
\end{document}


highlighting the item on the second slide.

A bit of imagination with this syntax can cover almost any appearance/disappearance/highlight requirement. As I said before: the key thing is not to overdo it!